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Cyber security in Sports

While attacks against sports entities continue to advance and become more popular, the sports world needs to catch up regarding securing assets.

This means that sports organizations either have yet to grasp the magnitude of a continuing and worsening trend or they have yet to take the proper steps in implementing protection methods.
The technologies to protect sports organizations are out there, but the ” know-how ” is currently missing.”

Even when organizations do allocate budgets and purchase security products, they often buy the wrong ones or use them in the wrong way, having a common understanding of the products they need. They are “misconfigured.

Most attacks against the sports world fall into the organized crime category. These individuals are motivated by financial gain and want to extort money from the victim organization. Numerous assets to protect, but the crown jewels could be categorized as the following: fan data, proprietary assets such as athletes, social media accounts, mobile apps and websites, cloud-based servers, online bank accounts, and, finally, employees.

Sporting organizations must work hard to educate leaders and implement new systems to protect themselves from an ever-evolving threat. Cyber protection has to be a significant consideration per project, and implementing experienced personnel such as a dedicated CISO (chief information security officer) is a must.


  • Establishing and implementing a comprehensive cyber awareness program to ensure all club members — from players to executives — are aware of the risks and how what they click on could impact the club.
  • Encouraging organizations to invest in AI-based techs, such as inbox defense systems, which provide real-time protection, can significantly impact the number of emails reaching the user’s inbox.
  • We are establishing GDPR compliance and creating Privacy Shield to protect organizational data.
  • Protecting devices and networks by keeping them up-to-date, adopting the latest supported versions, applying security patches promptly, and using antivirus and scanning regularly to guard against known malware
  • Restricting intruders’ ability to move freely around your systems and networks
  • Paying particular attention to potentially vulnerable entry points, e.g., third-party
  • Adhering to supply chain security best practices to help you assess the third parties you do business with.
  • Adhering to Stadium cyber security best practices as laid down by the authorities and federations.
  • Putting risk on the agenda: Discussions of your organization’s values and actions to protect it should be part of regular business. Making time to cover these issues at your management meetings or weekly catch-ups. When compared to physical threats, determine where cyber security threats sit on the priority list.
  • Preparing your business for the most common cyber security threats by developing plans to handle those incidents most likely to occur. The best way to test your staff’s understanding of what’s required during an incident is through various exercises to test your organization’s resilience and preparedness.

Some tips for IT Practitioners

Make basic attacks more difficult: Implement Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) for essential services such as email accounts. MFA buys a lot of supplementary security for relatively little effort. Organizations of all sizes can use MFA to protect their information, finances, and the services they rely on for day-to-day business.

You should also consider the application of other technologies to manage access to essential services, such as conditional access and role-based monitoring

Reduce the password burden:

Review how your organization uses passwords. To take some pressure off your staff, use technical security controls like blocking common passwords and allowing the use of password managers. Consider how you can identify or mitigate common password attacks, such as brute-forcing before harm is done.

Related Tags: Cyber Attack, Cyber Security, Password, Securing Assets, Sports and Games, Implementation of Protection, Multi-factor Authentication.

Incident and Response System

Incident response (IR) collects information security rules and processes to detect, contain, and eradicate cyberattacks. It helps companies plan, prepare and respond to various cybersecurity incidents. Every organization can benefit from incident response services.

About Incident Response Services

Security professionals establish the breach point, depth, and severity when a cybersecurity issue is discovered. Then, the incident response team starts the containment, eradication, and recovery process post-discovery and analysis.

The incident response teams’ objective is to create and maintain an environment that preserves the confidentiality and integrity of all users.

What do they do?

It is a group of IT specialists responsible for identifying and responding to organizational disaster. A proactive team maintains strong security best practices for all incident handling procedures.

On the other hand, a Security Operations Center monitors, analyzes, and defends a company against cybersecurity threats. As a result, individual risk profiles and business processes vary from company to company.
Few defined tasks like leadership, investigation, communications, documentation and legal representation are some fundamental duties of an incident response team.

How is it planned?

It is a document specific to an organization’s incident response protocols, actions, and responsibilities. It is meant to aid in the recovery of a company’s IT infrastructure after a cyberattack or other destructive event. It determines all of the above parameters, and businesses can employ incident response organizations ahead of time to prepare for potential assaults!

connect@tsarolabs.com – inquire to know more!

Related tags: incident response management, security operations center, Incident response, data breach, virus, corporate data, and equipment, employ incident response organizations, potential assaults, risk management

Understanding Encryption

Encryption refers to sending messages in coded form. Anyone who does not have the correct key cannot decrypt the message. Otherwise, the message is a random collection of letters, numbers, and characters.

Encryption is essential when trying to obtain sensitive data that others cannot access. Email travels over the internet
and can be blocked by cyberpunks, so adding an extra layer of security to your sensitive data is very important.
Encrypted data occurs randomly, but encryption proceeds logically and predictably so that no party receives encrypted data and knows the correct key to decrypt it back to plaintext. can Own In fact, secure encryption uses keys that are so complex that it is unlikely that a third party will crack or corrupt the ciphertext by brute force, i.e. guessing the key. Data can be encrypted “at rest” when it is stored, or “in transit” when it is transferred to another location.

How does encryption work?

Get the shared key of the reader. Once you have your key from Public Access, contact the person directly to verify your
identity. Most email clients have the ability to perform this task efficiently, so encrypt your email notifications with your public key and people can decrypt the message after receiving it.

What is a key in cryptography?

A cryptographic key is a string of characters used in the encryption process to change data so that it appears random. It locks (encrypts) data like a real key and can only be unlocked by someone with the original key.

What types of encryption are there?

The two main types of encryption,

  • Symmetric encryption
  • Asymmetric encryption.

Asymmetric cryptography is sometimes called public key cryptography. Symmetric encryption involves only one key and each communicating party uses the same (private) key for encryption and decryption.

Asymmetric encryption has two keys. One key encrypts and the other decrypts. The decryption key is kept private, but the
encryption key is public for anyone to manipulate. Asymmetric encryption is the underlying technology of TLS (often called SSL).

Why should I encrypt my data?

Privacy: Encryption ensures that only the intended recipients or fair data owners have access to messages or stored data. This protects your privacy by preventing ad networks, internet service providers, hackers, and routine
governments from blocking or reading your sensitive data.

Security: Whether data is in transit or at rest, encryption helps control data breaches. Hard drives are properly encrypted so information on lost or compromised corporate devices cannot be compromised. Similarly, encrypted
communications allow communicating parties to exchange personal information without the information being revealed.

Data Integrity: Encryption helps thwart malicious behavior such as on-the- path attacks. Encryption ensures that data sent over the internet has not been read or manipulated on its way to the recipient.

Regulations: Due to these factors, many industry and government regulations require companies that use user data to store encrypted data at rest. HIPAA, PCI DSS, and GDPR are examples of regulatory and compliance standards that require encryption.

What is an encryption algorithm?

An encryption algorithm is a method of converting data into ciphertext. Algorithms use encryption keys to predictably change data so that encrypted data appears random, but can be converted back to plain text using decryption keys.

What are some standard encryption algorithms?

Commonly used symmetric encryption algorithms are:

  • AES
  • 3DES
  • SNOW

Commonly used asymmetric encryption algorithms are:

  • RSA
  • Elliptic Curve Cryptography

What is a Brute Force Attack in Encryption?

To do. Modern computers make brute force attacks much faster. Therefore, cryptography must be very robust and complex. Most modern encryption techniques combined with strong passwords are immune to brute-force attacks. However, as computers become more powerful, they may become so. Brute force attacks using weak passwords are also possible.

How is encryption used to keep web browsing secure?

Encryption is fundamental to many technologies, but it is especially important for keeping HTTP requests and responses secure. The protocol responsible for this is HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure).

Websites served over HTTPS instead of HTTP have URLs that begin with https:// instead of http://, usually represented by a secure padlock in the address bar.

HTTPS uses an encryption protocol called Transport Layer Security (TLS). In the past, an older cryptographic protocol called Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) was the standard, but TLS has replaced SSL.

Therefore, websites that implement HTTPS have TLS certificates installed on their origin servers.

How is encryption different from digital signatures?

Like digital signatures, public key cryptography uses software such as PGP to transform information using mathematical algorithms to create public and private keys, but there are differences. Convert to code. The purpose of a digital signature is integrity and authenticity, verifying the sender of a message and showing that the content has not been tampered with. Encryption and digital signatures can be used separately, but encrypted messages can also be signed.

You use your private key when you sign a message, and anyone who has your public key can verify that your signature is
valid. When encrypting a transmission, the public key of the sender is used and the private key of the sender is used to
decrypt the messages.

After authenticity, verifying the sender of a message and showing that the content has not been tampered with. Encryption and digital signatures can be used separately, but encrypted messages can also be signed.
You use your private key when you sign a message, and anyone who has your public key can verify that your signature is
valid. When encrypting a transmission, the public key of the sender is used and the private key of the sender is used to
decrypt the message. People should keep their private keys confidential and password protected so that only the intended recipient can see the information.

Why You Should Encrypt Your Files

A nightmare situation would be if your laptop with a million social security numbers, banking information, or Pll was
stolen. Not encrypted. it’s going to be a nightmare.

If you do not store such information on your computer and use it only at home, you do not need encryption. But it’s still a good idea. Encryption is especially important for people concerned about data breaches. Also, companies often require it in their information security policies.

Encryption is the key to protecting your data. It’s also an easy best practice to include in your security policy. A common security framework, SOC 2 confidentiality, requires encryption of sensitive information to limit access by unauthorized parties. Since this encryption process can vary by system and device, we’ll start with Windows 10 and Bitlocker.

BitLocker is Microsoft’s proprietary disk encryption software for Windows 10. By following these 8 steps, you can keep
your data is safe and secure. Plus, it’s free and doesn’t require you to install anything. You can use BitLocker to encrypt your entire drive to protect against unauthorized changes to your system.

How to encrypt a hard drive in Windows 10?

In Windows Explorer, under This PC, find the hard drive you want to encrypt. Right-click the target drive and select Enable BitLocker.

Select Enter Password. Please enter a secure password. Select To enable the recovery key, which is used to access the drive if the password is lost.

You can print the key, save it as a file on your hard drive, save it as a file on a USB drive, or save the key to your Microsoft account.

Select Encrypt Entire Drive. This option is more secure and encrypted the files you mark for deletion.

Select New Encryption Mode unless your drive must be compatible with older Windows computers.

Click Start Encryption to start the encryption process. Note that you will need to restart your computer to encrypt your boot drive.

Encryption takes very little time, but at the same time, it runs in the background.

Note: BitLocker is not available on Windows 10 Home Edition, but Device Encryption has similar functionality.

Related Tags – Encryption, BitLocker, cryptography, cryptographic.

The Internet of Things (IoT)

The Internet of Things (IoT) defines the network of physical objects “things” embedded with software, sensors, and other technologies to connect and trade data with different gadgets and systems over the internet. These devices vary from standard household objects to sophisticated industrial tools. More than 7 billion are connected to IoT devices today, and specialists expect this number to expand upto 22 billion by 2025. We can combine everyday objects, thermostats, kitchen appliances, cars, baby monitors to the internet via entrenched devices; seamless communication is feasible between people, processes, and things.

By Utilizing low-cost computing, big data, the cloud, analytics, and mobile technologies, material things can transfer and compile data with the tiniest human intervention. In this hyperconnected world, digital systems record, monitor, and adjust each interaction between related items. The physical world encounters the digital world and they cooperate.


Business-ready, SaaS IoT Applications
I0T Intelligent Applications are prebuilt software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications that analyze and showcase seized IoT sensor data to business users via dashboards. We have a complete set of IoT Intelligent Applications.

IoT applications employ machine learning algorithms to examine enormous portions of corresponding sensor data in the cloud. As a result, we can use real-time IoT dashboards and alerts to gain visibility into statistics between failures, key performance indicators, and other information. In addition, machine learning–based algorithms can identify equipment anomalies, transmit signals to users, and trigger automated fixes or proactive countermeasures.

Cloud-based IoT applications help business users quickly improve the process of existing customer service, supply chains, financial services, and human resources.

IoT provides sensor information and enables device-to-device communication, driving a broad set of applications.

What technologies have made IoT possible?

While IoT has existed for a long time, recent advances in several different technologies have made it valuable.

Access to low-cost, low-power sensor technology

IoT technology is possible for more manufacturers because it is affordable and reliable.


It is easy to link sensors to the cloud and other “things” for efficient data transfer with the help of an innholder of Network protocols for the internet.

Cloud computing platforms

The increase in cloud platform availability enables businesses and consumers to access the infrastructure they need to scale up without managing it all.

Machine learning and analytics

With access to a large amount of data stored in the cloud and advancements in Machine learning and analytics, businesses can gather insights faster and more efficiently. The emergence of these associated technologies persists in forcing the peripheries of IoT, and the data assembled by IoT also feed these technologies.

Conversational artificial intelligence (AI)

Advances in neural networks have fetched natural-language processing (NLP) to IoT devices (such as Cortana, Siri, and digital personal assistants Alexa) and made them appealing, affordable, and viable for home use.

Related Tags

Internet of Things, Software, SaaS, Intelligent Applications, CyberSecurity, Connectivity, Cloud Computing, Machine Learning and Analytics.

Online Charging System

OCS is a specialized transmission function that permits an assistance provider to charge a user for services in real-time. The OCS handles the subscriber’s account balance, assigning transaction control, correlation, and rating. In addition, OCS assists a telecom operator in ensuring that credit limits are enforced and resources are authorized based on transactions.

Traditional online charging systems charge the Customer after a service is generated, whereas the OCS charges as services are developed. Therefore, OCS is more flexible than Intelligent Network (IN) prepaid solutions.

 1. Architecture

   1.1 Event-Based Charging

  1.2 Session-Based Charging

    1.2.1 Account and Balance Management

Online charging system overview (Source- researchgate.net)

Event Based Charging

An Event-Based Charging Function (EBCF) is employed to seize events based on their happening, preferably than their course or volume used in the event. Typical events include SMS, MMS, and content purchase (application, game, music, on-demand video, etc.).

The event-based charging operation is employed when the CC-Request-Type AVP = 4, i.e., for event proposal ex: diameter-SMS or diameter.

Let us assume a sample of Event-based Charging. 

  1. Cost of one apple is Rupees 25/- You pay the amount, take the apple and go. Likewise, sending a text message may cost you Rupee 1/- and that’s it. But, on the other hand, you subscribe to Caller Ring Back Tone (CRBT), which costs you Rs.30/- a month, irrespective of the number of calls you receive in a month. Therefore, we can term event-based Charging as a one-time or one-time occurrence cost.


Session Based Charging

The session-based charging function (SBCF) is responsible for the online Charging of network/user sessions, e.g., voice calls, IP CAN bearers, IP CAN offer sessions or IMS sessions.

Let us consider an example of session-based Charging. Utility services like electricity or water are charged based on overall usage for a specific time duration. For instance, you consume ‘x’ power units in a month and pay for units engulfed in that month. However, the use may vary monthly and hence the charges, similarly for drinking water, etc. Therefore, charging based on how much one consumes is metered or session-based.


Account and Balance Management

The account balance management function (ABMF) is the subscriber’s account balance location within the OCS.

LTE OCS-Online Charging System | OCF-Online Charging Function

Online charging architecture (source- rfwireless-world)

In OCS, charging events are received by the “Online Charging Function (OCF). ”
The OCF decides about the usage of resources based on the Rating Function (RF) and Account Balance Management Function (ABMF).
CTF stands for Charging Trigger Function.

Offline Charging System

Offline Charging authorizes Subscribers to consume the benefit without an upfront balance check or reservation. Post Service consumption and usage logs in the state of files & batches are processed for charging the Customers. These service usage files are called Charging Data Records (CDRs) or Event Data Records (EDRs).

As it’s not practical to send this large no. of files (different formats) through other Network nodes directly to the billing system, they are first adjudicated through a technique known as Mediation. It models between the Network layer and the BSS layer.

Mediation in offline charging (Source- RajarshiPathak)

Mediation system performs operations like: –

  • Raw CDRs Collections via PUSH or PULL method. CDRs file format can be ASCII, CSV, Binary, TAP, XML, etc.
  • Validating, Filtering & Parsing the CDR’s.
  • Processing/Enriching the records as per the Northbound systems (like Rating Engine, Interconnect System, Roaming Clearinghouse, RA, FMS, Reporting, etc.) requirements.
  • Distributing the processed CDRs to Northbound systems.

Offline Charging mechanism works for Service usage: –

  • Customer initiates service usage.
  • Raw CDRs get generated about this usage. Usage can be Session-based (e.g. Video call) or Event-based (e.g. File transfer/SMS).
  • Accounting-Request (ACR) and Accounting Answer (ACA) Diameter Messages are used to construct CDRs for service usage.
  • Raw CDRs are collected and processed by the Mediation system.
  • Processed CDRs from Mediation are guided to the Rating Engine.
  • CDRs are rated by Rating Engine as per the rate plans by measuring the events.
  • Rated Event data gets generated and stored in the Billing system.
  • Billing process picks up these rated events during the bill run for calculating the Usage charges to be applied on the Bill.
  • Bill gets generated for initiating Customer payments.

Source- netmanias.com

Offline Charging supports Session-based (like Voice calls or YouTube browsing) and Event-based (like SMS, File transfer over Instant Messaging) services. In addition, operators use the Customers’ credit limit for the service allowance. Therefore, revenue leakage will be minimal when the CDRs are rated as soon as they are generated during service usage.

Offline Charging mechanism as per 3GPP standard: –

Source- netmanias.com

CTF (Charging Trigger Function): The network node generates charging triggers whenever a customer uses services. Examples are GGSN, PGW, SMSC, etc. In addition, it sends Diameter Accounting-Request (ACR) messages to CDF to generate Raw CDRs.

CDF (Charging Data Function): This network node renders Raw CDRs by processing ACR/ACA messages established on service consumption. On obtaining ACRs, CDF processes the offline charging information and induces the CDRs. Using Accounting Answer (ACAs) messages, inform the CTFs that the Charging record has been developed.

CGF (Charging Gateway Function): The Mediation system processes the Raw CDRs and transmits the processed CDRs to the BSS systems. More details of Mediation are mentioned above.

Billing System

Use documents obtained from CGF (or Mediation) are placed by the Rating Engine. Rated Event data gets generated and stored. The billing process consumes the rated events held in the database and counts the Usage charges against the Customer’s Bill. During Bill Run, expenses like monthly recurring, one-time, cancellation, etc., are also processed along with usage charges. In addition, actions like billing term deals, adjustments, compensations, taxes, etc., are also assessed during the Bill Run. Once the Bill is concluded, it accepts the Payments against the Invoice.

Related Tags: payment, online charging, offline charging, billing, security, taxes, charging data, charging gateway, data management.

Shoulder Surfing at cafes and offices – An underestimated threat

Are you safe working at cafes, offices, and co-working spaces?

Well, the answer is No. It’s laughably low-tech, but shoulder surfing, or snooping over people’s shoulders to pry at the information displayed, is increasing – and there’s a good chance it’s happening to you.

Shoulder surfing is one of the most undervalued threats that is rapidly advancing. It is a type of social engineering that is aimed at obtaining personal information through interpersonal connection. There are two types of shoulder surfing.

The first type of attack is when direct observation is used to obtain access to data. For example, a person looks directly over the victim’s shoulder to observe when they enter data, such as their PIN, at a checkout terminal.

In the second type, the victim’s actions are first recorded on video. Criminals can then analyze these videos in detail and obtain the desired information later. Nowadays, it is possible to use video recordings to determine the PIN for unlocking mobile devices, even if the display cannot be seen in the video. The movements of a user’s fingers are enough to determine the access code.

Shoulder surfing can happen anywhere at any given point in time. So one must be aware of their surroundings while working on mobiles/desktops/laptops/ATMs/Filling necessary forms at banks, offices, etc.

The person can be a little far away, e.g., sitting some rows behind you on a train and using their mobile phone to video or take pictures of what they can see on your screen. Which they later use to retrieve information or access your account.

While using an ATM, someone positioned themselves in such a way that allowed them to watch you enter your PIN. In a rush, you leave the ATM with your card and money without ensuring it exited entirely out of your account. If the ATM doesn’t require the card to be inserted for the entire transaction, other transactions are permitted if you don’t confirm that you have any other trades to make as long as the attacker knows the PIN.

Crowded public transit makes it easy for attackers to see the device screens of others or hear the conversations of others. In these cases, they’re looking over the victim’s shoulder.

The victim accidentally leaves their device unattended in a public place. Having watched the victim enter his password into their computer moments before, the attacker can unlock the device with this information, putting any sensitive data on the computer at risk.

Some quick tips to avoid shoulder surfing

  • Eliminate passwords: The ONLY way to prevent password-based attacks is by eliminating passwords. Learn more about passwordless authentication today and keep your most critical applications secure.
  • Add a privacy screen to your devices: Using attached privacy screens dramatically lessens the risk of data disclosure. Some glass protector manufacturers have versions with a privacy screen, which protects your phone’s glass and the information on your phone, too.
  • Always be aware of your surroundings: Don’t let your guard down in public places. Attackers gravitate to those that they see as the easiest. If you’re distracted, you may not notice someone is watching you and what you’re entering into the device or the ATM.
  • Use biometric authentication instead: Biometric authentication, either using your fingerprint or face, can offer additional security that a PIN cannot. Since the attacker never sees you enter a physical PIN, they can’t log into the device.


Related Tags: cyberattack, hacking, security, cyberrisk, financesecurity, data, authentication, cybersecurity

Personal Data Protection Bill 2022

The Digital Personal Data Protection Bill 2022 tries to protect personal data while also pursuing users’ consent in what the draft claims are “precise and plain speech,” depicting the identical kinds of data that will be composed and for what purpose.

Divisions of “significant” dimensions – founded on aspects such as the volume of information they process – should appoint an autonomous data auditor to evaluate compliance with provisions of the law.
Enterprises will be mandated to stop controlling user data if it no longer suits the business objective for which it was amassed. However, users shall have the right to modify and erasure their data.
The administration will have the power to specify the countries where companies can transfer personal data. This will allow businesses to send user data to servers in nations on that list. In addition, the government will establish a “Data Protection Board” to ensure compliance with the proposed law. The board will also hear user complaints.

The Data Protection Board can impose financial fines for non-compliance. The draft proposal said that the collapse of commodities to take reasonable security precautions to prevent data infringements could result in penalties of up to 2.5 billion rupees ($30.6 million).

No company or institution will be entitled to process private data that is “likely to cause harm” to children, and advertising cannot target juveniles. In addition, parental consent will be required before processing any confidential data of a child.
The law will cover unique data collected online and digitized offline data. It will also apply to processing confidential data abroad if such data involves profiling Indian users or selling assistance to them.

Accelerate digital transformation with 5G security testing

5G networks are currently deployed across the globe by telecom operators and private enterprises. The 5G network is more complex than the previous generation of networks. With its Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (uRLLC) and Massive IOT capabilities, 5G supports new use cases such as virtual reality, tele surgery, autonomous transport, industry automation and connecting billions of devices.

5G networks are currently deployed across the globe by telecom operators and private enterprises. The 5G network is more complex than the previous generation of networks. With its Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC), and Massive IoT capabilities, 5G supports new use cases such as virtual reality, telesurgery, autonomous transport, industrial automation, and connecting billions of devices.

5G rollout also comes with numerous security concerns. Virtualization of network functions may lead to vulnerabilities such as denial of service. Software Defined Networks (SDN) are prone to attacks such as control plane threats, forwarding device attacks, API vulnerabilities, fake traffic flows, etc. 5G network attacks may even begin with exploiting the vulnerabilities in previous-generation networks. 5G core uses service-based architecture utilizing microservices deployed in cloud infrastructure. Microservices and the APIs connecting them also can open doors for attacks.

5G security is sufficiently addressed with new security frameworks such as SASE (Secure Access Secure Edge) or Zero Trust Security for the known vulnerabilities. However, with the wide variety of new 5G devices and millions of IoT devices introduced in the market with considerably fewer security features, the attack surface and vulnerabilities are also expanding.

Understanding the business impact of security breaches, simulating security threats, and planning mitigation approaches are vital for successful 5G network operations. The essential first step would be to build a comprehensive threat model to assess the network and applications’ risks and recognize the consequences of not addressing the risks. After formulating a threat model, the next important step in securing a 5G network would be to perform 5G penetration testing. Developing a comprehensive 5G security strategy is integral to the 5G deployment and validation. It must include security analysis and extensive cybersecurity testing across the supply chain, including all layers (i.e., hardware, operating system, applications, APIs, protocols), ensuring baseline security of 5G infrastructure.

Security & Vulnerability Assessment involves scanning 5G network components, devices, and applications.

5G cybersecurity assessment involves

  • Assessment of systems for compliance with regulations and standards
  • Gap analysis to unveil security holes
  • Assessment of insider and external threat
  • Assessment of active defenses and systems hardening
  • Cybersecurity patching

Information Assurance Testing involves the assessment of an organization’s security policies and procedures for operating the 5G network. It is performed using industry best practices and frameworks.
Penetration Testing is focused on the non-radio parts of the network, such as IP, network, and physical security, and tests the resilience of the 5G network security. It involves hacking, testing, and identifying vulnerabilities in networks and applications to secure them from unauthorized access.

Security Compliance Testing involves security evaluation against relevant security standards such as 3GPP Security Assurance Specifications.

Automated Network Testing involves identifying common security issues such as unpatched software, unencrypted links, poor network addressing, etc. This testing is performed using automated network security tools on the 5G network.

Public Key Security Testing involves validating Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) that uses cryptographic public keys linked to a digital certificate to authenticate devices or users. PKI certificates play a vital role in establishing and securing IoT devices, providing a high level of control and enabling large-scale device authentication, integrity, and reliable encryption.

5G security spans applications, network functions, transport layers, and cloud environments. Hence a holistic approach to testing is key to addressing security challenges and requirements. However, many network operators need help to build CI/CD pipelines and automated test suites to conduct comprehensive security testing, requiring 3rd party specialist testing service providers. Tsaro labs is a specialist security testing service provider with domain experts in cybersecurity and telecom network and applications.

Cyber security for drone industries

The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) or drones industry has become a vast worldwide technological sensation. The extensive use of drones and UAVs has made UAS very popular for the public and the private sector, like the Agricultural industry, Armed Forces, law enforcement, meteorological agencies, medical services, environmental companies, oil refineries, windmill manufacturers, farm owners, and many more. In the next decade, drones may become a norm in day-to-day life, just as cell phones are a norm today, which they were not only a few years ago. Cybercriminals are already aware of this and always searching for new ways to use drone technology to extract sensitive information and create chaos.

Since drones are remotely controlled, their chances of being hijacked by bad actors are considerable. Major cyber domain threats caused by drone activity are Downlink intercept, GPS spoofing, data exploitation, and many more. Therefore, organizations must also be conscious of the risks and take necessary measures to secure this valuable technology.

How can we mitigate the prevailing threats?

1. Understand The Security Risks To Your Business With A Managed Vulnerability Assessment every six months.

Organizations must identify, quantify and address the security vulnerabilities within their company’s infrastructure, including on-premise and cloud networks.

Securing your platform as you would do with any network device. Some valuable tips are-

  • Update the drone’s firmware and apply a manufacturer’s ppatch.
  • Use strong passwords for the base station application.
  • Use updated anti-virus software for your drone controller device.
  • Subscribe to a VPN service to encrypt your connection.
  • Limit the number of devices that can connect to the base station.
  • Use the “Return to Home” (RTH) mode to ensure drone recovery from a hijack situation.

Counter Drones
Countermeasures should focus primarily on space protection. It is important to be able to detect drones efficiently. Thermal cameras, RF scanners, high-frequency radars, acoustic sensors, and sophisticated machine learning and AI algorithms are used for this purpose. However, drones’ small size and low speed make their detection difficult within a highly cluttered environment.
Other techniques involve geofencing software, which creates a virtual border around an area, prohibiting unauthorized drone flight.

Workforce Training
Workforce training on cyber security is essential to help you better understand, detect, respond and monitor security risks across your business.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) software
Integrating ERP solutions to provide enhanced visibility, integration, agility, and response. It also includes technology that helps maintain and sustain UAVs and other defense assets.

Demystifying Uber Hack! Never Underestimate Social Engineering Skills of Attacker!

Clearly, this is what happens even if bug bounty platforms cannot prevent attacks by not paying ample amount of $$ to personal (TA) for their work!

As its, developing information, found out that the person behind this attack is of 18 years old (remember there is no age limit for threat actors/hackers) & ultimately, he doesn’t even know what exactly to do with the data that he had accessed to. Still, he found a way in, that is why it makes us feel vulnerable.

According to The New York Times, the threat actor responsible for the Uber hack claims to have gained access simply by sending a text to an Uber employee pretending to be from the company’s corporate IT team and compromised the employee’s account he used the employee’s existing VPN access to pivot to the intranet network and talking about internal network infrastructure they are often less configured and less protected and less audited compared to external infrastructure, that leaves many doors open.

TA appears to have made themselves known to Uber’s employees by posting a message on the company’s internal Slack system. “I announce I am a hacker and Uber has suffered a data breach,” screenshots of the message circulating on Twitter read. The claimed hacker then listed confidential company information they said they’d accessed and posted a hashtag saying that Uber underpays its drivers. Once the attacker compromised an employee, they appear to have used that victim’s existing VPN access to pivot to the internal network. the attacker appears to have found an internal network share that contained scripts with privileged credentials, giving them the keys to the kingdom. They claim to have compromised Uber’s Duo, OneLogin, AWS, and GSuite environments.

The threat actor also breached the Uber Slack server, which he used to post messages to employees stating that the company was hacked. However, screenshots from Uber’s slack indicate that these announcements were first met with memes and jokes as employees had not realized an actual cyberattack was taking place.

The attacker shared several screenshots of Uber’s internal environment, including their GDrive, VCenter, sales metrics, Slack, and even their EDR portal.

Uber’s AWS environment appears to be compromised as well. This screenshot of their IAM portal appears to show that the attacker has administrative access. If true, cloud access could not only include Uber’s websites, but other critical internal services as well.

The fact that the attackers appear to have compromised an IR team member’s account is worrisome. EDRs can bake in “backdoors” for IR, such as allowing IR teams to “shell into” employee machines (if enabled), potentially widening the attacker’s access.

Previous incidents:

  1. Uber hacked by teenager demanding higher pay for drivers.
  2. Lapsus$ Cyberattacks Traced to Teenager in England.
  3. Teen who hacked Bill Gates Twitter account sentenced.
  4. Teenage hackers breached T-Mobile, grabbed 30k repos.
  5. Scots ‘hacker’ could be extradited to America after manhunt.

Lessons Learnt:

  • Organizations should start using Phishing resistant MFA.
  • Awareness, and regular phishing tests of employees.
  • Centralizing authentication like SSOs can be a single point of entry for any attackers.

So, how do you prevent social engineering ?

You don’t. Stop trying. This is the basic principle of security… it’s a every day process.

You assume it will happen and put in technical safeguards to prevent or minimize impact, here is how:

  • Using phishing resistant MFA (FIDO, passkeys, etc.)
  • Do not save your credentials as plain text.
  • Investing in automation.
  • Ensuring least privilege.
  • Designing with an assumption of breach: How do we detect, contain, …? (Threat model).
  • Education is a key to minimizing possible attack surface’s against Social Engineering.
  • MFA providers should by default automatically lock accounts out temporarily when too many prompts are sent in a short period of time.

List of social engineering types of attacks

  • Phishing
  • Smishing
  • Vishing
  • Spam
  • Spam over instant messaging (SPIM)
  • Spear phishing
  • Dumpster diving
  • Shoulder surfing
  • Pharming
  • Tailgating
  • Eliciting information
  • Whaling

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